In 1870, the non-Indian population of Montana Territory was 20,595. Other significant economic resources include oil, gas, coal, mining, and lumber. Montana has thousands of named rivers and creeks,[55] 450 miles (720 km) of which are known for "blue-ribbon" trout fishing. "Montana: Land of the Big Sky, the Unabomer, and Very Little Else". The front is often well defined, causing a large temperature drop in a 24-hour period. Mountains of sunset fire The land I love the best Let me grasp the hand of one From out the golden West. [151] In 1916, the Stock-Raising Homestead Act allowed homesteads of 640 acres in areas unsuitable for irrigation. [26][61] The Pend Oreille River forms the outflow of Lake Pend Oreille. Explore No place like home: Brianna Bull Shows advocates broader education on American Indian culture Explore Senators serve four-year terms, while Representatives serve two-year terms. Many species of mushrooms and lichens[90] are also found in the state. The court employs 12 permanent special masters. [20] Other major mountain ranges west of the divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, the Sapphire Mountains, and the Flint Creek Range. The state motto is expressed as "Excelsior!" Molly Todd has won the Betty Coffey Award Explore In honor of Martin Luther King Jr. Day, MSU presents "A Celebration of Blackness" virtual event, Jan. 15, 11:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. Its decisions may be appealed directly to the U.S. Supreme Court. The first gold discovered in Montana was at Gold Creek near present-day Garrison in 1852. [185], In the 2015 United States Census, Montana had the second-highest percentage of U.S. military veterans of another state. The constitution was narrowly approved, 116,415 to 113,883, and declared ratified on June 20, 1972. The motto reflects the hopes and attitude of the people of the state of … [290] Montana voters amended the 1889 constitution 37 times between 1889 and 1972. Farmers of Irish, Scots, and English roots also settled in Montana. In July 1889, Montanans convened their third constitutional convention and produced a constitution accepted by the people and the federal government. Bonanza is originally a Latin word that means 'bonus' or 'good'. [129], The first U.S. Army post established in Montana was Camp Cooke in 1866, on the Missouri River, to protect steamboat traffic going to Fort Benton. [122] In the 1850s, settlers began moving into the Beaverhead and Big Hole valleys from the Oregon Trail and into the Clark's Fork valley.[123]. [96] Montana hosts five federally endangered species–black-footed ferret, whooping crane, least tern, pallid sturgeon, and white sturgeon and seven threatened species including the grizzly bear, Canadian lynx, and bull trout. Beginning in 1909, these elections became nonpartisan. There are no intermediate appellate courts. [176] Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced on September 3, 2015, that Virginia Class attack submarine SSN-794 will become the second commissioned warship to bear the name. It has a single judge, appointed by the governor. A state seal with a miner's pick and shovel above the motto, surrounded by the mountains and the Great Falls of the Missouri River, was adopted during the first meeting of the territorial legislature in 1864–65. The executive branch is headed by an elected governor. [13] Most of Montana's hundred or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of which is geologically and geographically part of the northern Rocky Mountains. [200] Also, 15,438 (1.7% of the state population) were speakers of Indo-European languages other than English or Spanish, 10,154 (1.1%) were speakers of a Native American language, and 4,052 (0.4%) were speakers of an Asian or Pacific Islander language. Flowers native to Montana include asters, bitterroots, daisies, lupins, poppies, primroses, columbine, lilies, orchids, and dryads. The war created a boom for Montana mining, lumber, and farming interests, as demand for war materials and food increased. This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 20:22. The first permanent settlement by Euro-Americans in what today is Montana was St. Mary's (1841) near present-day Stevensville. The city of Helena is the capital of the state. [134] Nelson Story brought the first Texas Longhorn cattle into the territory in 1866. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service administers 16,800,000 acres (68,000 km2) of forest land in ten National Forests. "A depiction of mountains, plains, forests, and the Great Falls of the Missouri River. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. These lands are managed by the state for the benefit of public schools and institutions in the state. Complicating the wartime struggles, the 1918 influenza epidemic claimed the lives of more than 5,000 Montanans. [235], Many notable Montana authors have documented or been inspired by life in Montana in both fiction and non-fiction works. [28] The Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet (3,000 m) high in the continental United States. [291] In 1914, Montana granted women the vote. As settlers began populating Montana from the 1850s through the 1870s, disputes with Native Americans ensued, primarily over land ownership and control. Neither justices nor the clerk are term limited. network. On August 1, 1917, he was dragged from his boarding house by masked vigilantes, and hanged from a railroad trestle, considered a lynching. When the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba, President John F. Kennedy said the Soviets backed down because they knew he had an "ace in the hole", referring directly to the Minuteman missiles in Montana. The first territorial capital was at Bannack. [77] It flows north through Yellowstone National Park, enters Montana near Gardiner, and passes through the Paradise Valley to Livingston. State tree, Ponderosa pine. [205], The largest denominations in Montana as of 2010 were the Catholic Church with 127,612 adherents, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 46,484 adherents, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 38,665 adherents, and nondenominational Evangelical Protestant with 27,370 adherents. [10] The name was changed by representatives Henry Wilson (Massachusetts) and Benjamin F. Harding (Oregon), who complained Montana had "no meaning". [166] In combination, these laws criminalized criticism of the U.S. government, military, or symbols through speech or other means. Both Montana nicknames come from an advertising booklet made by the Montana Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and Industry. [163], In the wake of the legislative action in 1918, emotions rose. Montana eventually became home to the largest ICBM field in the U.S. covering 23,500 square miles (61,000 km2). In this way, the Montana state nickname is another reference to Montana's richness in minerals. [282][283] Montana's largest circulating daily city newspapers are the Billings Gazette (circulation 39,405), Great Falls Tribune (26,733), and Missoulian (25,439).[284]. Hers was the only vote against the war, and in the wake of public outcry over her vote, Rankin required police protection for a time. Other railroads followed suit. Burnings of German-language books and several near-hangings occurred. [10] When Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. [108][110] Winters are warmer, too, and have fewer cold spells. Indian survivors who had signed treaties were generally required to move onto reservations. [USA] [Missouri state motto: Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law.]pol. For other uses, see, "Montanan" redirects here. Before the creation of Montana Territory (1864–1889), areas within present-day Montana were part of the Oregon Territory (1848–1859), Washington Territory (1853–1863), Idaho Territory (1863–1864), and Dakota Territory (1861–1864). A 12th nation, the Little Shell Chippewa is a "landless" people headquartered in Great Falls; it is recognized by the state of Montana, but not by the U.S. government. Ecotaxes on resource extraction are numerous. [130], Simultaneously with these conflicts, bison, a keystone species and the primary protein source that Native people had survived on for centuries, were being destroyed. Large-scale battles revolved around the giant Anaconda Copper company, based in Butte and controlled by Rockefeller interests, until it closed in the 1970s. It is the fourth-largest state in the United States after Alaska, Texas, and California;[12] it is the largest landlocked state. [149] Though the word "honyocker", possibly derived from the ethnic slur "hunyak",[154] was applied in a derisive manner at homesteaders as being "greenhorns", "new at his business", or "unprepared",[155] most of these new settlers had farming experience, though many did not.[156]. A random draw grants a limited number of permits for moose, mountain goats and bighorn sheep. October 4, 2019. [323] The students of Livingston started a statewide school petition drive plus lobbied the governor and the state legislature to name the Maiasaura as the state fossil in 1985. [275], Montana is ranked as the least obese state in the U.S., at 19.6%, according to the 2014 Gallup Poll. [228] Another early subscription school was started by Thomas Dimsdale in Virginia City in 1863. The legislature in turn adopted this recommendation by a wide margin. The largest mining operations were in the city of Butte, which had important silver deposits and gigantic copper deposits. [137][138] The Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site in Deer Lodge is maintained today as a link to the ranching style of the late 19th century. This represented a manpower contribution to the war that was 25% higher than any other state on a per capita basis. [140] Surveys in 1874, 1875, and 1876 helped spark the Great Sioux War of 1876. [230] The first legislature authorized counties to levy taxes for schools, which set the foundations for public schooling. The students were Indian children and the children of Fort Owen employees. The design was only slightly modified after Montana became a state and adopted it as their Great Seal in 1893. [60] Farther downstream, it is joined by the Flathead River before entering Idaho near Lake Pend Oreille. A series of major mining discoveries in the western third of the state starting in 1862 found gold, silver, copper, lead, and coal (and later oil) which attracted tens of thousands of miners to the area. [163], In June 1917, the U.S. Congress passed the Espionage Act of 1917, which was extended by the Sedition Act of 1918. Decisions of the court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court. State Symbols – Official Designations", "St. Mary's Mission in Stevensville designated National Historic District", "Tester Asks Navy to Christen Submarine USS Montana", "Threatened, Endangered and Candidate Species in Montana-Endangered Species Act", "Trapping and Furbearer Management in Montana", "Upper Yellowstone River Mapping Project", "USGS Geonames Search Result-Montana+Stream", "Vermont Remains Top State in Capita per Brewery", "Welcome to the Montana High School Association", "Welcome to the World Ski Joring Championships", "Yellowstone in Winter: Current Management and Planning", List of Searchable Databases Produced by Montana State Agencies, Montana Energy Data & Statistics—From the U.S. Department of Energy, Montana State Facts From the U.S. Department of Agriculture, USGS Real-time, Geographic, and Other Scientific Resources of Montana, Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador), Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua), Indigenous people during De Soto's travels,, States and territories established in 1889, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from June 2014, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from October 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from February 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with dead external links from February 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with self-published sources from December 2017, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Oro y Plata" (Spanish for "Gold and Silver"), Total employer establishments: 38,720 (As of 2018. 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